7. Endnotes

1. The Venetians applied the term to the Christian rural population in the Ottoman regions and those living along the Ottoman-Venetian border, which became part of the Venetian Republic by the end of the 17th century.

2.Villages Islam Grcki and Islam Latinski are situated in the northern Dalmatia hinterland area known as Ravni Kotari. Prior to the Homeland War, majority of population of Islam Latinski were catholic (ethnic Croats) as well as majority of population of Islam Grcki were ortodox (ethnic Serbs). In the Middle Ages the area was occupied by Otoman empire (dominant religion-Islam) which could explain the first part of the villages names.

3. "The term contains all the reflections that have arisen from that reception: Morlacchian exotics, Romantic literary Slavism, interest in Morlacchian (Croatian, Slavic) oral literature, literary discussions, activating Dalmatian economic issues, identification and self-identification" (Gulin, 1997:85).

4. Writings dealing with Morlacchi presented to Europe by Fortis and Lovric are a mixture of literary, scientific-documentary and journalist texts. The materials themselves can be grouped into the several units: psychological and physical features of the Morlacchi, language and oral culture of the Morlacchi, everyday life of the Morlacchi and highway robbing (hajducija). Description given here belongs to the psychological and physical features of the Morlacchi (Gulin, 1997: 84). 

5. Italian music in this context relates primarily to the music practice among the local population of the coastal region, called Boduli by the Morlachs (bodolo, from the Italian Venetian dialect, meaning islander or insular). Vlaji and Boduli differ in both their way of life and their music-making. The music of the coastal region and islands is characterised by three or four part singing (known as a klapa singing), wider melody ambitus with tempered intervals, intervals of major and minor thirds or sixths, usualy sung in the homophonic forms. The music in the Hinterland is entirely different from that of the neighboring Mediterranean coastal towns according to its most recognizable musical characteristics - two-part singing in small groups, a very narrow ambitus with untempered intervals and frequent chromatic movements, intervals of major and minor seconds, variety of polyphonic forms - as well as in its situations and ways of performing, and the ways in which it is perceived by the local population.

6. To emphasise an important function of the listeners of this specific musical system I use term "passive listener" for the outsiders of this culture. It is adressed to the people who are by chance exposed and, who, in the same time, does not or does not want to understand and honestly evaluate the music-making of the Dalmatian Hinterland.

7. The ganga singing was a topic of Ankica Petrovic's doctoral thesis at the Queens University in Belfast where she was a student of John Blacking.

8. In the Croatian standard language there is a distinction among immigrants by the place where they migrated. All Croatian immigrants in the western European countries (particularly Germany) are called radnici na privremenom radu [persons on the temporary work]. In the same time, Croatian immigrants to far-away countries (North and South America, Australia) are called hrvatski iseljenici [Croatian immigrants].

9. Most of the popular narrative songs of the time were collected in the book Razgovori ugodni naroda Slovinskoga by friar Andrija Kacic Miosic. This book, printed in Venice in 1756., usually known by heart instead reading, was the most popular literature among the Hinterlanders. From the first edition (1756) until present time, the book was reprinted 74 time and was distributed in thousands of copies.

10. The repertoire of the long, heroic epic songs performed by guslari, the singers who accompany themselves on the gusle, a bowed single (rarely double) stringed fiddle one can found throughout the Balkans. Gusle consists of a wooden sound box covered with an animal skin, a neck and beautifully carved head. Horse-hair string, stretched along the entire length of the instrument, is bowed by the curved wooden bow with the horse-hair. Guslari, as a rule, are gifted individuals who are capable of committing to memory long narrative texts about heroes and events from the distant and not so distant past and to improvising new ones in decasyllabic verse (deseterac) (Caleta, 2000:425).

11. The Homeland War - Domovinski rat (1991-1995) is the term for the war conflict that happened on the territory of the Republic of Croatia. It was a conflict between majority of population and minority supported by Yugoslav Army.

12. Newspaper reports and my informants had the identical stories of imprisonment for the singing of unacceptable songs. Beside songs that were known as "nationalistic" songs (e.g. "Oj, ti vilo Velebita", "Marjane, Marjane") they were inventing decasyllabic couplets like:

Druze Tito, kupit cu ti Ficu, a Mercedes Anti Pavelicu.

[Comarade Tito, I will buy you Fico (Fiat toppolino) and Mercedes Benz for Ante Pavelic (leader of the ustashi movement in W.W.II)].

13. Dernek is Turkish word for the social gathering.

14. Diple is a double chanter clarinet type of instrument with idioglot single reeds, with or without a reservoir - reminiscent of the bagpipes. Air reservoir is made of animal skin attached to the wooden double chanter diple. The finger-holes on the chanter are made in various combinations from the very oldestone-part form (6:0) to the two-part combinations (6:6, 6:2, and mostly 6:3). The holes are stopped with three fingers on each hand - from the index finger downwards. The instrument is still in practice in Dalmatian Hinterland (diple), the island of Korcula (misnice) and peninsula Peljesac (mjesnice), on the northern Adriatic islands and on Istrian penninsula (mih) (Caleta, 2000:433).

15. Ganga -fest is held on first Saturday in August in the honor of Gospe od Andjela [Our Lady of Angels], the Patron Saint day of Biorine.

16. Sijavica (sijesete, mura) is a counting game known all over Mediterranean. Two players are showing to each other a number of fingers paralelly shouting Italian numbers of the sum of their fingers. Beside card playing (treseta, briskula) this is the only game accepted from their bodulo neighbors.

17. Due to the extreme changes in the life style, most of the young people are not able to "live" the music life of their predecessors. Learning methodology is not based on the direct imitation of the older singers or players. Therefore, young people are looking for the appropriate source of the older layers of their local repertoary. In many cases, the Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Research is the only place where they can find and copy the old recordings of the music of their ancestors.

18. Musical style of the Dalmatian Hinterland is just one of the many musical styles that exist in present Croatia. It is not dominant musical style or system, it is rather marginal. Therefore, population who prefers dominant music styles (either traditional and or popular) do not feel for this music to be a part of "their" music, of "their" musical heritage.

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