On Jewish and Muslim musicians of the Mediterranean (Shiloah)


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1. See: A. Shiloah, "La voix et les techniques vocales chez les Arabes," Cahiers des musiques traditionnelles 4, Geneva, 1991, p. 85-101.

2. This topic is discussed in A. Shiloah, Music in the World of Islam, London, Scolar Press, co-published with Wayne State University Press, 1995, chap. 4.

3. A. Merriam, The Anthropology of Music, North Western University Press, 1964, p. 103.

4. Ellen Koskoff ed., Women and Music in Cross-Cultural Perspective, New York, 1987, p.

5. See: F. Rosenthal , trans., The Muqaddimah of ibn Khaldun: An Introduction to History, (3 vols), Princeton, 1967, vol. II, 404-405.

6. Ibid.

7. F. Rosenthal, The History of Muslim historiography, Leiden, 1968, p. 66.

8. See: George Dimitri Sawa, Music Performance Practice in the Early ŽAbbasid Era, Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1989, part two.

9. D.B. Macdonald, "Emotional Religion in Islam as Affected by Music and Singing. Being a Translation of a book of the IhyaŪ Žulum al-din of al-Ghazzali, with Analysis, Annotations and Appendices," Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1901, 195-252 and 705-748; 1902, 1-28.

10. B. Bartók, Essays Selected by B. Suchoff, London, 1976, p.

11. For further details on the cantor and the baqqashot see: A. Shiloah, Jewish Musical Traditions, Wayne State University Press, 1992, p. 67-71 and 150-154.

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